Pharmaceutical Economics

Antonio Legorreta

Type of Faculty: 
Part Time
Appointment Title: 
Adjunct Professor
Areas of Interest: 
  • Health Services Research Applications
  • Performance-Based Reimbursement Models
  • Pharmacoeconomic and Adherence Studies        
Biographical Information: 

Dr. Legorreta's work has significantly contributed to the development of real-world outcomes research, implementation of quality of care metrics at the physician level and to the adoption of incentive-based reimbursement models. Dr. Legorreta has developed and implemented health services research applications to measure medical care and resource consumption disparities, and has implemented quality of medical care improvement projects for leading US health plans. Dr. Legorreta has extensive experience in designing and introducing performance-based reimbursement models and high performance networks which have been adopted by leading national payers. For the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, Dr. Legorreta conducted pharmacoeconomic and adherence studies for leading companies in the U.S. and the European Union.  On August 2, 2011 the United States Patent and Trademark Office granted Dr. Legorreta patent number 7,991,626 entitled:  Apparatus And Method For Self-Reporting Medical Information.

Dr. Legorreta has held senior executive positions at U.S. Healthcare, Health Systems International and Health Net, Inc. Dr. Legorreta was the founder of Health Benchmarks, Inc. (HBI), which in 1999 he incorporated as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Health Net, Inc. In August 2001, Dr. Legorreta led the purchase of HBI from Health Net, establishing HBI as a fully independent company. In April 2008, IMS Health (NYSE symbol: RX) acquired HBI through a stock purchase transaction.

Dr. Legorreta has published original research—breast cancer, asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, among other topics—in over 70 peer-reviewed medical articles, in journals such as, Journal of the American Medical Association, Archives of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Care, Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the American Journal of Public Health, and Health Services Research among others. In addition to his medical training at Mexico State University School of Medicine, Dr. Legorreta earned his master's degree in public health from the Yale University School of Medicine, Division of Health Services Research. Dr. Legorreta was Visiting Assistant Clinical Professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York and he is currently an Adjunct Professor at UCLA's School of Public Health and Senior Natural Scientist at RAND.

Education: 
MD, Mexico State University School of Medicine
MPH, Yale University School of Medicine, Division of Health Services Research
Selected Publications: 

Legorreta AP, Silber JH, Costantino GN, Kobylinski RW, Zatz SL. Increased Cholecystectomy Rate After the Introduction of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. The Journal of the American Medical Association 1993; 270: 429-1432.
Legorreta AP, Brooks RJ, Leibowitz AN, Solin LJ. Cost of Breast Cancer Treatment: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 1996; 156: 2197-2201.
Legorreta AP, Christian-Herman J, O'Connor RD, Hasan MM, Evans R, Leung KM. Compliance With National Asthma Management Guidelines and Specialty Care: A Health Maintenance Organization Experience. Archives of Internal Medicine 1998; 158:457-464.
Legorreta AP, Meng Y, Leung KM, Lin Z, Davidson MB. Diabetes and Disenrollment in an HMO Setting-A Four-Year Longitudinal Study with a Matched Cohort. Diabetes Care 1999; 22(9): 1487-1489.
Legorreta AP, Liu X, Parker RG. Examining the Utilization of Breast-Conserving Treatment for Women With Breast Cancer in a Managed Care Environment. American Journal of Clinical Oncology: 2000; 23(5): 438-441.
O'Connor RD, O'Donnell JC, Pinto LA, Wang SW, Wiener DJ, Legorreta AP. Two-Year Retrospective Economic Evaluation of Three Dual-Controller Therapies Used in the Treatment of Asthma. Chest 2002;121:1028-1035.
o-Year Retrospective Economic Evaluation of Three Dual-Controller Therapies Used in the Treatment of Asthma. Chest 2002;121:1028-1035.
Berger WE, Legorreta AP, Blaiss MS, Schneider EC, Luskin AT, Stempel DA, Suissa S, Goodman DC, Stoloff SW, Chapman JA, Sullivan SD, Vollmer B, Weiss KB. “The Utility of the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) Asthma Measure to Predict Asthma-related Outcomes” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: 2004; 93:538-545
Legorreta AP, Metz R, Nelson CF, Ray S, Chernicoff HO, DiNubile NA. "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH AND WITHOUT CHIROPRACTIC COVERAGE: PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS, UTILIZATION, AND COSTS" Archives of Internal Medicine: 2004;164:1985-1992.
Legorreta A, Yu A, Chernicoff H, Gilmore A, Jordan J, Rosenzweig JC. “Adherence to Combined LamivudinE+Zidovudine Versus Individual Components: A Community-Based Retrospective Medicaid Claims Analysis.” AIDS Care 2005; 17(8):938-948.
Gilmore AS, Zhao Y, Kang N, Ryskina KL, Legorreta AP, Taira DA, Chung RS. Patient Outcomes and Evidence-Based Medicine in a Preferred Provider Organization Setting: A Six-Year Evaluation of a Physician Pay-for-Performance Program. Health Services Research. 2007:42(6p1):2140-2159.
Gilmore AS, Helderman JH, Ricci JF, Ryskina KL, Feng S, Kang N, Legorreta AP. “LINKING THE US TRANSPLANT REGISTRY TO ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS DATA: EXPANDING THE POTENTIAL OF TRANSPLANT RESEARCH.” Medical Care. 2007:45(6):529-536.

William Comanor

Type of Faculty: 
Part Time
Appointment Title: 
Professor
Address: 
UCLA Fielding School of Public Health / Department of Health Policy and Management / 31-245A CHS
310.206.1641
310.825.3317
Areas of Interest: 

Pharmaceutical Research and Development        

Biographical Information: 

William S. Comanor is Professor of Health Policy and Management and also Professor of Economics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. At UCLA, he is Director of the Research Program on Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy and also organizes a Seminar by the same name. Dr. Comanor received his Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University in 1964. Since completing his dissertation on "The Economics of Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry," that subject has been one of his primary interests. He has written and lectured on various topics in this area, and founded the Research Program he now directs. From 1991 through 1993, he served on the Advisory Panel of a Federal Government Study on Pharmaceutical Research and Development, and from 1978 through 1980 was Chief Economist and Director of the Bureau of Economics at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission in Washington .

Education: 
PhD, Economics, Harvard University
Selected Publications: 
  • "Research and Competitive Product Differentiation in the Pharmaceutical Industry in the United States," Economica, November 1964.
  • "Research and Technical Change in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Beview of Economics and Statistics, May 1965.
  • "The Drug Industry and Medical Research: The Economics of the Kefauver Committee Investigation," Journal of Business, January 1966.
  • "Competition in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Issues in Pharmaceutical Economics, Lexington Books, Robert I. Chien, ed., Chapter 4, pp. 63-68, 1979.
  • "National Health Insurance in Ontario: The Effects of a Policy of Cost Control," American Enterprise Institute, pp. 1-57, 1980.
  • "Competition and Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Drugs and Health: Economic Issues and Policy Objectives, American Enterprise Institute, R.B. Helms. ed., 1981.
  • "The Pharmaceutical Industry from an International Perspective," review of The International Supply of Medicines by Robert B. Helms, The Antitrust Bulletin, Winter 1983, Col. XXVIII.
  • "The Political Economy of the Pharmaceutical Industry" Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XXIV, September, 1986.
  • "Pharmaceuticals" (with Stuart O. Schweitzer in The Structure of American Industry, Walter Adams and James W. Brock, eds, 1994.
  • "Profitability in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Robert B. Helms, ed., Competitive Strategies in the Pharmaceutical Industry, American Enterprise Institute. 1996.
  • "The Cost of Pharmaceuticals,"(with Stuart O. Schweitzer) in R.A. Andersen, et al., eds., Changing the U.S. Health Care System, San Francisco, Jossey Bass, Inc., 1996
  • "Strategic Pricing of New Pharmaceuticals," (with Z. John Lu), Review of Economics and Statistics, Feb. 1998.        

Stuart Schweitzer

Type of Faculty: 
Full Time
Appointment Title: 
Professor
Address: 
UCLA Fielding School of Public Health / Department of Health Policy and Management / 31-293D CHS
310.825.2595
310.825.3317
Areas of Interest: 
  • Health Policy
  • Health System Organization and Financing
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Comparative Health Systems
  • Health Economics and Industrial Policy       
Biographical Information: 

Stuart O. Schweitzer is Professor of Health Policy and Management at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health. He teaches courses in health economics, health system organization and financing, and pharmaceutical policy.  His publications include over 100 scholarly articles and book chapters, and he has authored four books dealing with Health economics, Intellectual property transfer, pharmaceutical policy, and Industrial policy.   His books include Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy (Oxford University Press) and Health Policy and High-Tech Industrial Development (Edward Elgar), Industrial Policy in the United States:  Breaking the Taboo (Edward Elgar), and Readings in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy (Edward Elgar) (forthcoming). 

Professor Schweitzer earned his Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley. He has taught at Wayne State University and Georgetown University, as well as having been on the research staff of The Urban Institute and the National Institutes of Health. He served as Senior Staff on President Carter's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, where he was responsible for developing national health insurance proposals.  In addition, he has held visiting appointments at Oxford University, CREDES (Paris), ESSEC (Paris), and Fudan University (Shanghai).  He currently holds a Visiting Professor position at the University of Ferrara, in Italy.  

His research interests are in the areas of health policy, especially as they pertain to pharmaceuticals, genetics, industrial policy, and the financing of health care. Dr. Schweitzer recently directed a study of drug pricing in wealthy and developing countries. Another recent project was developing a strategy for the FDA to address the country’s shortage of generic drugs.  He co-directs the UCLA Research Program in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy.  With a co-author at the University of Ferrara, Professor Schweitzer has recently published a book on industrial policy – the intervention of government into the economic structure of the country.

Education: 
PhD, Economics, University of California Berkeley
Selected Courses: 
HPM 100: Introduction to Health Systems
HPM 205: Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy
HPM 236: Health Economics
HPM 405: Research Seminar in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy
Selected Publications: 

Books (selected)

Di Tommaso MR and Schweitzer SO, eds., Health Policy and High-Tech Industrial Development: Learning from Innovation in the Health Industry, Cheltenham (UK): Edward Elgar Publishers, 2005.

 

Schweitzer SO, Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy (2nd edition), New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.  Chinese edition published in 2012.

Di Tommaso M.R and Schweitzer SO, Industrial policy in America: Breaking the taboo, (Cheltenham UK:  Edward Elgar Publishers), 2013.

Comanor WS and Schweitzer SO, eds., Readings in Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, (Cheltenham UK:  Edward Elgar Publishers), 2014 (in press).

 

Articles and Book Chapters (selected)

 

Di Tommaso MR, Paci D, and Schweitzer SO, “Clustering for Intangibles”, in Bianchi P and Labory S, (eds.), The Economic Importance of Intangible Assets, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.

 

Di Tommaso MR, Paci D, Rubini L, and Schweitzer SO, “Is Distance Dead?  High-Tech Clusters Analysis and Policy Perspectives”, in Pitelis C, Sugden R, and Wilson JR ,(eds.), Clusters and Globalisation:  The Development of the Economies, Cheltenham:  Edward Elgar, 2004.

 

Di Tommaso M.R., Schweitzer S.O., “Las Pequenas y medianas empresas en industrias de alta tecnologia: la experencia de las empresas biotecnologicas en los Estatos Unidos”,” in Bianchi, P., Parilli M.D., Sugden, R., Alta Tecnologia, productivitad y redes, Città del Messico, Edizioni El Collegio de Tlaxcala, 2005.

 

Di Tommaso, MR, Schweitzer, S.O., "Intangible Clusters of Firms", in Bianchi P and Labory S (eds.), The Economic Importance of Intangible Assets, London: Ashgate, 2005.

 

Schweitzer SO and Di Tommaso MR and, “The Health Industry Model:  New Roles for the Health Industry”, in Di Tommaso and Schweitzer SO, (eds.), Health Policy and High-Tech Industrial Development: Learning from Innovation in the Health Industry, Cheltenham England: Edward Elgar Publishers, 2005.

 

Di Tommaso MR, Paci D, and Schweitzer SO, “The Geography of Intangibles: the case of the Health Industry”, in Di Tommaso MR and Schweitzer SO, (eds.), Health Policy and High-Tech Industrial Development: Learning from Innovation in the Health Industry, Cheltenham England: Edward Elgar Publishers, 2005.

 

Spence M, Teleki S, Cheetham CM, Schweitzer SO, and Millares M, “The effect of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising on prescribing”, Medical Care Review and Research, 62(5):544-559), 2005.

 

Schweitzer SO, Connell J, and Schoenberg FP, “Clustering in the Biotechnology Industry,” International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management, 7(6), 2006.

 

Paci D and Schweitzer SO, “Technology policy and social policy:  how industrial policy applies to health”, in Bianchi P and Labory S (eds.) Handbook of Industrial Policy (Cheltenham UK:  Edward Elgar Publishers) 2006.

 

Schweitzer SO and Comanor WS, “Controlling Pharmaceutical Prices and Expenditures:  A Review,” in Andersen RA, Rice TH, and Kominski GF, (eds), Changing the U.S. Health Care System (3rd ed), San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2007. (4th edition, with an updated chapter is in press)

 

Schweitzer SO, “Introduction:  How will health systems adopt new genetics technology?”  in Schweitzer SO, ed., Special Issue on Genetics and Society, International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management 8(5):417-425, 2007.

Comanor WS and Schweitzer SO, “Determinants of drug prices and expenditures,” Managerial and Decision Economics 28:1-14, 2007.

Di Tommaso M.R., Schweitzer S.O, Small and Medium-size Firms in High Technology Industries:  The Experience of Biotechnology Firms in the United States, in D. Parrilli, R. Sugden and P. Bianchi (eds.), High Technology, Productivity and Networks (Basingstoke UK:  Palgrave Macmillan) 2008.

 

Schweitzer SO, “Trying Times at the FDA – The Challenge of Ensuring the Safety of Imported Pharmaceuticals,” New England J of Medicine 358(17):1773-1777, April 24, 2008

Chen Y, Schweitzer SO, “Issues in Drug Pricing, Reimbursement, and Access in China with Reference to the Asia-Pacific Region,” Value in Health 11(Supplement 1:S124-129), 2008.

Barbieri E,  Schweitzer SO, and Galassi FL, “La localizzazione delle imprese biotech in Italia:analysi e implicazioni per le politiche industriali regionali” (“Regionalization of Biotech Industrial Development in Italy:  Analysis and implications for Industrial Districts,” L’Industria 34(4):7-33, 2009.

Di Tommaso, M.R., Schweitzer, S.O., “Percorsi di sviluppo per l’industria italiana. Può “the Health Industry” contribuire al cambiamento?”, in Di Tommaso, M.R., Rubini, L., Paci, D. (eds), L’industria della salute,  (Milano: Franco Angeli) 2009.

Katz G and Schweitzer SO, “Implications of Genetic Testing for Health Policy,” Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics, 10(1):90-134, 2010.

DiTommaso MR and Schweitzer SO (eds), International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management  11(4) (Special Issue on University-Industry Technology Transfer in the High-Technology Sector), 2010. 

Di Tommaso MR and Schweitzer SO, “The Management of Academic Knowledge and Industrial Development: International Experiences in Health-Industry-Related Sectors,” special issue of International Journal of Healthcare Technology and Management 11(4), 2010.

 

Di Tommaso MR and Schweitzer SO, “Academic Knowledge Production and Transfer: Policy targets and implications for the Health Industry”, International Journal Healthcare Technology and Management, 11(4), 2010.

Schweitzer SO, Comanor WS, and Riddle J, “Drug Prices in Poor Countries are Lower than they are in Wealthy Countries,” Health Affairs 30(8): 1553-1561, 2011.

Schweitzer SO, “How the FDA Can Solve the Prescription Drug Shortage Problem?”  Amer J Public Health, June 2013.

Schweitzer SO and Comanor WS, “Determinants of Pharmaceutical Prices and Expenditures” in Kominski GF, (ed), Changing the U.S. Health Care System (4th ed), San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2013. (in press)

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